Discussione:Paik June Nam
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== PAIK NAM JUNE (1932-2006) ==
http://www.paiknamjune.org/kor/paiknamjune.htm http://www.guggenheim.org/exhibitions/past_exhibitions/paik/paik_top.html http://www.geocities.com/namjunepaik/ http://www.paikstudios.com/contact.html http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0837292.html
1. Paik Nam June’s Art
Paik studied music composition first in Korea, then at the University of Tokyo, where he wrote his thesis on Modernist composer Arnold Schoenberg. In 1956 Paik traveled to Europe and settled in Germany to pursue his interest in avant-garde music and performance. During studies at the Summer Course for New Music in Darmstaat in 1958, he met composer John Cage. Cage's ideas on composition and performance were a great influence on Paik, as were those of George Maciunas, the founder of the radical art movement Fluxus, which Paik was invited to join.
Paik's initial artistic explorations of the mass media of television were presented in his first solo exhibition in 1963, Exposition of Music—Electronic Television, at the Galerie Parnass in Wuppertal, Germany. This milestone exhibition featured Paikís prepared televisions. Paik altered the sets to distort their reception of broadcast transmissions and scattered them about the room, on their sides and upside down. He also created interactive video works that transformed the viewers' relationship to the medium. With these first steps began an astonishing effusion of ideas and invention that over the next 30 years would play a profound role in the introduction and acceptance of the electronic moving image into the realm of art.
In 1964 Paik moved to New York and continued his explorations of television and video, and, by the late 1960s, was at the forefront of a new generation of artists creating an aesthetic discourse out of television and the moving image. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Paik also worked as a teacher and an activist, supporting other artists and working to realize the potential of the emerging medium. Along with his remarkable sequence of videotapes and projects for television—featuring collaborations with friends Laurie Anderson, Joseph Beuys, David Bowie, Cage, and Merce Cunningham—he created a series of installations that fundamentally changed video and redefined artistic practice.
Paik oeuvre later included television sculpture, satellite art, robotic devices, laser art(post- video), and giant video walls with synthesized imagery pulsating from stacks of cathode-ray tubes.
June 20th, 1932 Born in Seoul (Korea), the fifth son of a textile manufacturer
1950 The Paik family flees from the Korean War, first to Hong Kong, and later to Japan
1956 Paik graduates from the University of Tokyo, concluding his studies of the History of Art and the History of Music with a thesis on Arnold Schonberg
1956-58 Studies the History of Music at Munich University; meets Karlheinz Stockhausen; studies Composition at Freiburg Conservatory
1958-63 Meets John Cage; works in the Studio fur elektronische Musik at WDR, Cologne
1959-62 Has appearances with pieces of his action music; Stockhausen's "Originale" is performed in Cologne
1963 Participates in "Fluxus. Internationale Festspiele neuester Musik", Wiesbaden; "Exposition of Musik / Electronic Television", the first exhibition including TV monitors, is shown at Galerie Parnass, Wuppertal
1963-64 Travels to Japan; meets Shuya Abe; experiments with electromagnets and color television; visits New York, collaborates with Charlotte Moorman
1965 First solo exhibition "Electronic Art" in the USA at Galeria Bonino, New York; buys the first portable video recorder
1966-69 First multi-monitor installations; works with magnetically distorted TV recordings; "Electronic Opera No. 1" is performed at the live program "The Medium is the Medium", GBH-TV, Boston
1969-70 With Shuya Abe, constructs the video synthesizer
1971 Works at WNET's TV lab, New York
1976 Retrospective at Kolnischer Kunstverein, Cologne Since
1979 Chair at Staatliche Kunstakademie, Dusseldorf
1982 Retrospective at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York January 1st,
1984 Satellite broadcast of "Good Morning Mr. Orwell" from the Centre Pompidou, Paris, and a WNET-TV studio, New York
1987 Elected a member of the Akademie der Kunste, Berlin
1988 Erects a media tower, "The more the better", from 1003 monitors for the Olympic Games at Seoul
1990 "Video Arbor" is put up in Philadelphia as a sculpture for the public sector
1991-92 Double exhibition "Video Time - Video Space" at Kunsthalle Basel and Kunsthalle Zurich, subsequently shown in Dusseldorf and Vienna Receives Goslar Kaiserringes Award
1993 Nam June Paik with Hans Haake represents Germany in XLV Venice Biennale d' Arte
1998 Receives Kyoto Award
2000 Receives National Arts Club Award Retrospective The Worlds of Nam June Paik, opens at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York then travels to Ho-Am Art Gallery and the Rodin Gallery, Seoul Korea
2006 Nam June Paik passed away at his Miami home at 8:00pm EST on Sunday, January 29th
Numerous grants and awards from, inter alia, the Guggenheim Museum, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the American Film Institute; Will Grohmann Award, Goslar Emperor's Ring, UNESCO's Picasso Medal
3. INDIVIDUAL EXHIBITIONS
- Wuppertal, Germany, Galerie Parnass, Exposition of Music-Electronic Television, March 11-20.
- Siegfried Bonk. "Uber dem Eingang ein blutiger Ochsenkopf." KolnerStadt-Anzeiger (Cologne), March 16.
- John AnthonyThwaites. "Der Philosoph and die Katze: Nam June Paik in der Galerie Parnass in Wuppertal." Deutsche Zeitung, April 9, p. 10.
- NewYork, New School for Social Research, Nam June Paik: Cybernetics Art and Music, Jan. 8.
-"Paik ShowsTV at New School." Village Voice (NewYork), Jan. 7, p. 14.
- NewYork, Galeria Bonino, Nam June Paik ElectronicArt, Nov. 23-Dec. 11. Brochure, with text by Paik.
- Emily Genauer. "Critical Guide to the Galleries." New York Herald Tribune, Nov. 27.
- John Canaday. "Art:The Electronics-Kinetics Trend." New York Times, Dec. 4, p. L27.
- Emily Genauer. "Marriage of the Arts-New Dreams for Old." New York Magazine, Dec. 5.
- Lucy Lippard. "NewYork Letter." Art International (Lugano, Switzerland) 10, no. 1 (Jan.), pp. 90-96.
- Howard Junker. "The New Silver Screen." Esquire (NewYork) 66, no. 4 (Oct.).
- NewYork, Art Center of the Paul Klapper Library, Queens College ofThe City University of NewYork, Expanding Perceptions in the Arts, March 20-22.
- Stony Brook, New York, SUNY Stony Brook, Art Gallery, Nam June Paik Exhibit, March 1-15. Brochure.
- NewYork, Galeria Bonino, ElectronicArt II, April 17-May 11. Brochure, with essay by Allan Kaprow.
- John Canaday. "Art: Serene Squares and Tortured TV" The New York Times, April 4.
- Peter Schjeldahl. "Stripes, Paper Bags, and TV" The New York Times, May 5, p. 11-31.
- NewYork, Galeria Bonino in collaboration with Intermedia Institute, ElectronicArt I/I: Paik-Abe Video - - - Synthesizer with Charlotte Moorman, Nov. 23-Dec. 11. Catalogue, with introduction by Russell Connor and text by Paik.
NewYork, Galeria Bonino, Nam June Paik: T. V. Sea: ElectronicArt IV, Jan. 15-Feb. 2. Catalogue.
-Hilton Kramer. "A Fast Sequence of Forms Changing Color and Shape."The New York Times, Feb. 3, p. D25.
Syracuse, New York, Everson Museum of Art, Nam June Paik: Videa 'n' Videology 1959-1973, Jan. 15-Feb. 15. Catalogue, edited by Judson Rosenbush and with texts by Paik. Special oversize limited edition reprinted 1997 byTova Press.
- NewYork, Martha Jackson Gallery, Fish on the Sky-Fish hardly flies anymore on the Sky-let Fishes fly again, dates unknown.
- NewYork, Rend Block Gallery, Nam June Paik, Feb. 1-Mar. 4.
- P. Frank. "Nam June Paik: Rend Block Gallery, NewYork." Art inAmerica (NewYork) 63, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct.), pp. 104-05.
- NewYork, Rend Block Gallery, Moon /s the Oldest TV-Set, Feb. 21-March 18.
- Ingrid Wiegand. "Great Paik and Little Fishes." SoHoArts Weekly (NewYork), March 11, p. 15.
- Gregory Battcock. "Video and Napkins." Domus (Como), no. 559 (June), p. 52. NewYork, Bonino in Soho, Fish Flies on the Sky, Feb. 21-March 18.
- Ingrid Wiegand. "Great Paik and Little Fishes." SoHoArts Weekly (NewYork), March 11, p. 15.
- Gregory Battcock. "Video and Napkins." Domus (Como), no. 559 (June), p. 52.
- Cologne, Kolnischer Kunstverein, Nam June Paik: Werke 1946-1976: Musik-Fluxus-Video, Nov. 19, 1976-Jan. 9, 1977. Catalogue, with introduction by Wulf Herzogenrath, essays by Peter Frank, Wulf Herzogenrath, Hainz-Klaus Metzger, Tomas Schmit, Rainer Wick, and Jean-Pierre Wilhelm, and texts by Paik.
- Georg Jappe. "Unnormales Abendprogramm: Nam June Paik in Koln." Die Zeit (Hamburg), Nov. 26.
- NewYork,The Museum of Modern Art, Projects: Nam June Paik, closed Oct. 9. Information sheet, with essay by Barbara London.
- Tokyo, Galerie Watari, A Tribute to John Cage, May 15-30.
- Berlin, Rend Block Gallery, Fluxus Traffic, Oct. 10-Nov. 20.
- Paris, Musee d'Art Moderne de laVille de Paris, Nam June Paik Retrospective, Nov. 22,1978Jan. 8,
- D. Bloch. "Nam June Paik et ses pianos 8 lumiPres." Art Press (Paris), no. 23 (Dec.), pp. 8-9.
- NewYork, Whitney Museum of American Art, The New American Filmmakers Series, Nam June Paik, Feb. 26-March 2. Brochure. Tokyo, Galerie Watari, VIDEA Iro Iro: PAPER TV and Tropical Fish, Sept. 1-22. Brochure.
- Tokyo, Galerie Watari, By with of on Beuys, Cage, Cunningham, Paik, Aug. 11-26.
- NewYork, Whitney Museum of American Art, Nam June Paik, April 30-June 27. Catalogue, with foreword byTom Armstrong and essays by John G. Hanhardt, Michael Nyman, Dieter Ronte, and David A. Ross.Traveled to Chicago, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sept. 11-Oct. 24.
- Martin Pops. "Nam June Paik: Ales and Cake." Bennington Review (Nutley, New Jersey), no. 14 (winter), pp. 29-30.
- Paul Gardner. "Tuning in to Nam June Paik." ARTnews (NewYork) 81, no. 5 (May), pp. 64-73.
- Grace Glueck. "Art: Nam June Paik Has Show at Whitney."The New York Times, May 9, p. C24.
- Robert Hughes. "Electronic Finger Painting." Time (New York), May 17.
- Kay Larson. "Nam June Paik's Zen Video." New York Magazine, May 24, pp. 81-82.
- J. Hoberman. "Paik's Peak." The Village Voice (New York), May 28, pp. 39-40.
- Leendert Drukker. "Video Pioneer Upsets Reality." Popular Photography 89, no. 8 (Aug.), pp. 134, 148.
- B. Kurtz. "Paikvision." Artforum (NewYork) 21, no. 2 (Oct.), pp. 52-55. Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, Mus6e national d'art moderne, Nam June Paik, Dec. 15, 1982-April 10,
- Brochure, with essays by Pierre Restany and Jean-Paul Fargier.
- Frederic Edelmann. "Nam June Paik A distance." Le Monde (Paris), Jan. 2, 1983, pp. 9. Cincinnati, Carl Solway Gallery, Video Flag, Sept. 6-Dec. 31.
- Tokyo,Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, Nam June Paik-Mostly Video, June 14-July 29. Catalogue, with essays by John G. Hanhardt, U-fan Lee, and Itsuo Sakane, and text by Paik.
- Yusuke Nakahara. "Socialization of New Art." Sankei Shimbun (Tokyo), June 22, p. 9.
- YouichiYokota. "Adding aTime Axis to Art: 'Frame ofTV' As an Oil Painting." Yomiuri Shimbun (Tokyo), July 2.
- Boston, Institute of Contemporary Art, Nam June Paik: BSO and Beyond, Sept. 6-Nov. 4. Brochure.
- Berlin, daadgaIerie, Art for 25 Million People: Good Morning, Mr. Orwell, Kunst and Satelliten in derZukunft, Nov. 28-Dec. 9. Catalogue, with foreword and essays by Renb Block, and text by Paik.
- Cincinnati, Carl Solway Gallery, Family of Robot, March 5-April 30. Brochure.
- NewYork, Holly Solomon Gallery, Family of Robot, Sept. 25-Oct. 25.
- Michael Brenson. "Nam June Paik." The New York Times, Oct. 3, p. C29.
- Douglas McGill. "Nam June Paik." The New York Times, Oct. 3, p. C26.
- Roberta Smith. "Out of the Wasteland." Newsweek (New York), Oct. 13, p. 67.
- Dan Rubey. "Nam June Paik." ARTnews (New York) 85, no. 10 (Dec.), pp. 145, 147.
- Walter Robinson. "Nam June Paik at Holly Solomon Gallery." Art in America (NewYork) 75, no. 6 (June 1987)
- Tokyo, Galerie Watari, Bye-Bye Kipling Drawings, Oct. 9-25. Catalogue, with essay by HeigoTakashima and text by Paik. Fukui, FukuiTheater FBC, Nam June Paik, Oct. 11-Nov. 3.
-"Exploring the Future of Image Culture: The World of Video Art, Exhibition of Nam June Paik." Asahi Shimbun (Osaka), Oct. 1.
- KazuoYamawaki. "Exhibition of Nam June Paik: Kaleidoscopic World of Video." Yomiuri Shimbun (Tokyo), Oct. 18.
- "The Age of Video: Art Is Now Invading the Field ofTheater and Music.' Asahi Shimbun (Tokyo), Jan. 14.
- Santa Monica, California, Dorothy Goldeen Gallery, Nam June Paik: Beuys and Bogie, Feb. 18-March 26.
- Christopher Knight. "Medium's Message Lost i n Transition. " Los Angeles Herald Examiner, Feb. 18, p. 4.
- Jacki Apple. "The Last Great ModernistPaik's Peak." Art week (Oakland), March 19, p. 5. London, Hayward Gallery, Nam June Paik: Video Works 1963-88, Sept. 29-Dec. 11. Catalogue, with foreword by Joanna Drew and Gerlinde Gabriel and essay by Wulf Herzogenrath.
- Carrie Donald. "TheTV Screen As Sculptor's Model." The Independent (London), Sept. 27, p. 1.
- William Feaver. "TenTanks of Silly Old Guppies." Observer (London), Oct. 2.
- Nicky Hamlyn. "The Far Side of the Screen." The Guardian (London), Oct. 6, p. 24.
- Nena Dimitrijevic. "Nam June Paik." Flash Art (Milan), no. 144 (Jan.-Feb. 1989), p. 130.
- Michael Phillipson. "Nam June Paik." Artscribe International (London) 73, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1989), pp. 74-75. London, Nigel Greenwood Gallery, Nam June Paik: "V-Idea, " Oct. 1-Nov. 5.
- Nena Dimitrijevic. "Nam June Paik." Flash Art (Milan), no. 144 (Jan.-Feb. 1989), p. 130. Cincinnati, Contemporary Arts Center, Metrobot, permanent outdoor sculpture dedicated Nov. 4.
- Frankfurt, Portikus, Eine KerzelOne Candle, Jan. 21-March 12. Catalogue, with introduction by Kaspar Konig and Ulrich Wilmes and essays by Jean-Christoph Ammann and Edith Decker.
- Kyu-chul Ahn. "Review of Paik's Exhibition 'Eine Kerze' in Frankfurt." Wolgan Misool (Seoul), March, pp. 125-26.
- Laszlo Glozer. "Die Kerze and DieTelevision." Suddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), no. 61 (March), p. 35.
- Noemi Smolik. "Nam June Paik." Artforum (NewYork) 28, no. 10 (summer), p. 155-56. Translated from the German by Joachim Neugroschel.
- Bilbao, Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao, Nam June Paik, April 11-May 30. Catalogue.
- Paris, Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, La Fee a/ectronique, April 28-Oct. 31. Catalogue, with foreword by Suzanne Page and essays by Suzanne Page and Pierre Restany.
- Fukuoka, Fukuoka Art Museum, Nam June Paik: The Family of Robot, June 27-July 16. Catalogue, with essay by Barbara London and text by Paik. Traveled to Nagoya City Art Museum, July 28-Aug. 27.
- MizutaniTakashi. "Linking Technology and Human." Mainichi Shimbun (Tokyo), Aug. 4.
- San Francisco, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Nam June Paik, July 13-Sept. 3. Traveled to Santa - Monica, Calif., Dorothy Goldeen Gallery, Jan. 6-Feb. 10, 1990; Dallas Museum of Art, Oct. 11-Dec. 6,1992; - Newport Beach, Calif., Newport Harbor Art Museum; Tempe, Arizona, University of Arizona; and Fresno, Calif., Fresno Art Museum. NewYork, Holly Solomon Gallery, Nam June Paik: Recent Paintings and Sculpture, Nov. 1-25.
-Robert Mahoney. "Nam June Paik." Arts Magazine (NewYork) 64, no. 7 (Feb. 1990), pp. 101-02.
- Geneva, Galerie Marika Malacorda, Nam June Paik: TV, Feb. 8-March 31.
- Reggio Emilia, Italy, Chiostri di San Domenico, Nam June Paik, Feb. 17-March 11.
- Dusseldorf, Galerie Hans Mayer, Nam June Paik: Sterne, Sept. 20-Oct. 20.
- Philadelphia, One FranklinTown Apartments, VideoArbor permanent outdoor installation dedicated Oct. 23. Brochure.
- Anonymous. "Video Visionary." Applause (Philadelphia), Nov., p. 9. Miami, Miami International Airport, Miami and Wing, permanent indoor sculptures dedicated Nov. 29. Frankfurt, Galerie Lupke, Nam June Paik. Grafiken and Multiples, Dec. 1, 1990-Jan. 12, 1991.
- Konstanze Crowell. "Konstlerische Philosophie mit hohem Unterhaltungswert: DieVideowelt des Nam June Paik." Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (Frankfurt), Dec. 16, p. 18.
- Cologne, Galerie Berndt and Krips, Nam June Paik, Jan. 18-Feb. 28. Brochure, with essay by Wulf Herzogenrath.
- Seoul, Gallery Hyundai and Gallery Won, A Pas de Loup: de Seoul a Budapest, July 30-Aug. 20. Catalogue, with essays by Jean-Paul Fargier, Hong-hee Kim, and Kwang Su Oh, and text by Paik.
- Basel, Kunsthalle Basel, Video Time-Video Space, Aug. 15-Oct. 27. Joint exhibit with Zurich, Kunsthaus - Zurich, Aug. 16-Oct. 6. Catalogue, with introduction byToni Stooss, essays by John Cage, Wolfgang
- Drechsler,Thomas Kellein, Charlotte Moorman, David Ross, et al., and text by Paik.Traveled to Dusseldorf, Stadtische Kunsthalle Dusseldorf, Nov. 30, 1991-Jan. 12,1992; and Vienna, Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig and Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts Wien, Feb. 27-April 12, 1992. Reprinted with revised backmatter by Abrams, NewYork, 1993.
-Yong-woo Lee. "Nam June Paik-Video Art: Power and Spirit ofThirtyYears." Wolgan Misool (Seoul), Sept., pp. 50-54.
-Bernard Mack. "Kreuzweg des Elektronischen Ze ita lte rs. " Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung (Hannover), Sept. 14.
-Markus Bruderlin. "Zurich/Basel: Nam June Paik." Artforum (NewYork) 30, no. 5 (Jan. 1992), p. 117. London,The Mayor Gallery, Nam June Paik: Video Sculpture, Nov. 25, 1991-Jan. 15, 1992. Brochure.Traveled to Geneva, Galerie Eric Franck.
- Phoenix, American West Arena, ElectroSymbio-Phonics for Phoenix, permanent outdoor installation. Diisseldorf, Galerie Hans Mayer, Nam June Paik: NeueArbeiten, Jan. 15-Feb. 29.
- Seoul, Hyundai Gallery, Nam June Paik: Recent Works '88-'92, July 30-Aug. 20.
- Seoul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Nam June Paik Retrospective: Videotime, Videospace, Jul. 30-Sept. 6. Catalogue, with essays by John G. Hanhardt, Wulf Herzogenrath,Taehi Kang, Hong-hee Kim, David A. Ross, and Christine van Assche, and text by Paik.
- Kuniharu Akiyama. "ElectronicTechnology WillTransform the Century." Koumei Shimbun (Tokyo), Aug. 8.
- Takashi Inagaki. "Nam June Paik Exposition-VideoTime/Video Space." InterCommunication (Tokyo), no. 3 (winter 1993), pp. 8-15.
- NewYork, Holly Solomon Gallery, Nam June Paik: Photographs, Oct. 8-Nov. 21.
- Rome, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, II Novecento di Nam June Paik: Arti elettroniche, cinema e media verso it XXl secolo, Nov. 9-29. Catalogue, with foreword by Lucio Babera, introduction by Antonina Zaru, and essays byVittorio Fagone, Marco Maria Gazzano, and Achille Bonito Oliva.
- Brooklyn, Chase MetroTech Center, The Chase Information Wall permanent Indoor sculpture, dedicated Dec.
-Charles Hagen. "High-Tech Artworks Adorn High-Tech Lobbies." The New York Times, Dec. 30, pp. C7, C12.
- NewYork, Holly Solomon Gallery, The Rehearsal for the Venice Biennale / The German Pavilion, April3-May8. Brochure.
- Zurich, Sammlung Hauser & Wirth, Jardin Illumine, May 1-July 3. Catalogue, with introduction by Pipilotti Rist.
- Maya Kundig. "Fernsehmenschen in Lichtergarten: DerVideokunstler Nam June Paik zeigt in einer alten Zurcher Werkhalle neueste Intallationen." CASH (Hamburg), no. 18 (May), pp. 72-73.
- Hamburg, Weisser Raum, TV Bed, Fish TV, Egg Grows, Beuys Vox, Darwin, Videochandeliers '91, Neptun, May 14-July 3
- Venice, XLV Biennale di Venezia, German Pavilion, Artist As Nomad, June 13-Oct. 10. Catalogue, Eine DATA Base, published by Cantz, Stuttgart, with foreword by Klaus Buf3man, essays by David Bourdon, John Canaday, Edith Decker, Vittorio Fagone, Jean-Paul Fargier, et al., and text by the artist.
- Tokyo, WATARI-UM,The Watari Museum of Contemporary Art, Nam June Paik Recent Works: Paik Chikyuron, Sept. 8-Dec. 30. Catalogue, with essays by Arata Isozaki, Thomas Kellein, Kyung-Sung Lee, Achille Bonito Oliva, and Shizuko Watari, and text by Paik.
- Takashi Nakajima. "Central Asia As the Meeting Point of the Eastern and Western Culture." Image Forum (Tokyo), no. 167 (Dec.), pp. 116-17.
- Satoru Nagoya. "Korean Artist BlazesTrail of Video Art around the World." Japan Times (Tokyo), Sept. 26, p. 10.
- Hiroki Fukuda. "Anticipating the Possibilities of the Media: Striding over the 'East' and 'West' with Ease." AERA (Tokyo), no. 43 (Oct.-Nov.), p. 75.
- "VideoThat Lives in the Forest, Lively Humor." Asahi Shimbun (Tokyo), Oct. 19, p. 13.
- Erimi Fujiwara. "Living a 'Eurasia':The King of Broadcast Media." Brutus (Tokyo), Dec. 1, p. 61.
- Milan, Arengario in the Palazzo Reale, Nam June Paik: Lo Sciamano del Video, June 3-Oct. 9. Catalogue, with essays by Gino di Maggio, Vittorio Fagone,Yong-woo Lee, Henry Martin, Achille Bonito Oliva, and Dominique Stella.
- Fukuoka, Japan, Fukuoka Art Museum, Nam June Paik, Aug. 30-Oct. 23. Catalogue, with essay by Jin Matsuura and text by Paik.
- Fort Lauderdale, Fort Lauderdale Museum of Art, The Electronic Super Highway: Travels with Nam June Paik, Nov. 4,1994-Jan. 15, 1995. Catalogue, with prologue by Marcella Allison, introduction by Kenworth W. Moffett, essays by Ken Friedman, John G. Hanhardt, Barbara London, Florian Matzner, Robert C. Morgan, and texts by Paik.Traveled to Indianapolis Museum of Art, Feb. 18-April 16, 1995; Columbus Museum of Art, June 11-Sept. 17, 1995; Philadelphia Academy of the Fine Arts, Oct. 28, 1995-Jan. 15, 1996; San Jose Museum of Art, Feb. 7-May 5,1996; San Diego, Museum of Contemporary Art, June 1-Sept. 19, 1996; Lisbon, Caixa Geral de Depositos, Culturgest, Oct. 1-Dec. 8, 1996; Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, July 13-Sept. 14, 1997; and Honolulu Academy of Art, Nov. 6, 1997-Jan. 4, 1998.
- Bremen, Kunsthalle Bremen, Nam June Paik: Fluxus/Video, Nov. 14, 1999-Jan. 23, 2000. Catalogue, with foreword by Georg Abegg and Wulf Herzogenrath, and essays by Eugen Blume, Arthus C. Caspari, Wulf Herzogenrath, and Anja Osswald, and texts by Paik.
- Niklas Maak. "DieToten Hosen des Buddha." SuddeutscheZeitung (Munich), Nov. 30, p. 17. -Nicola Kuhn. "Von Videos and anderen Dinos." Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), Dec. 4, p.31.
"The Worlds of Nam June Paik" Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Installation view "The Worlds of Nam June Paik" Museo Guggenheim Bilbao Spain
Installation at Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin Germany 2004 "Global Groove 2004" and "One Candle"
4. Texts by Paik Nam June
a. ELECTRONIC TV & COLOR TV EXPERIMENT
In my two previous essays on this subject (Decollage No. 4 and Fluxus Newspaper No. 3), I treated the aesthetical aspects of the electronic TV experiments and its relation to eletronic music. This essay will be mainly a technical report.
Ⅰ COLOR TV EXPERIMENT
A Three taperecorders are added to the convergence-circuit, so that convergence circuit is modulated over the waves from the taperecorders...Any black & white image gets random picture. (Point A. B. C. at circuit diagram)
B Three TV cameras are fed to each Kathode of red, green, blue electro-guns of the color picture tube, so that one shadow mask picture tube shows three different images of three color at one time. The brightness of the three images is controlled by the amplitube of three taperecorders at the reversed phase. (Point E. F. G.)
Ⅱ BLACK & WHITE TV EXPERIMENTS
A The picture is changeable in three ways with hand switches. Upside-Down; Right Left; Positive-Negative.
B The screen can become larger and smaller in vertical and horizontal dimensions separately according to the amplitude of the tape-recorder.
C Horzontal & vertical deflection of normal TV is changed into the spiral-deflection. Any normal square images varied into a fan-from. (Special Yoke-ossilator-amplifier is made for it.)
D A TV screen (negative) in match-box size.
E TV picture is "disturbed" by strong demagnetizer, whose place and rhythm give rich variety.
These experiments were made in Tokyo in 1903-04 with technical help of Mr. SHUYA ABE & Mr. HIDEO UCHIDA, whose ability and creativity I cannot emphasize too much. My cooperation with these top engineers broadened and changed my Lebensanchauung.
Ⅲ The following is a recapitulation of my first show in Galerie Parnass in March, 1903, Wuppertal, Germany.
A A relay is intercepted at the grid of Video-output tube so that picture is visible only when the relay is connected. (Point H on circuit) It is controlled by the amplitube of the radio or tape-recorder.
B A relay is intercepted at the A/C 110 volt input and fed by a 25 watt amplifier without rectifier. Unsymmetical sparks are seen on screen.
C 10 meg ohm resistor is intercepted at the grid of the vertical output tube and then the waves from the generator are fed here, so that both waves interfere and modulate with each other. (Point L)
D The waves from the taperecorder are fed to the horizontal output tube's grid, so that horizontal lines are warped according to the taperecorder's frequency and amplitube. (Point J)
E The vertical output tube is cut out; you see only one straight line.
Professor K. O. Goetz of the Kunstacademie in Duesseldorf, Germany nas published since 1960 on the idea of feeding the Kathode of the TV picture tube with a computor. This idea has not been realized, because he could not get a computer and our largest computer is still to slow to send 4 million points in each one 50th second. Although this idea and my method is completely different, I want to pay due respect. Also, TV -decollage of W. Vostell (Smolin Gallery, N. Y. C., 1903) shows rich possibilities of combinations of TV and betero-TV the TV," "B elements. ("Shoot ury the TV," “TV behind canvass," "TV blur" etc.) Knud Wiggen is--hopefully--working to establish an electronic TV studio in Stockholm. I hope for financial help from foundations for us all.
1964. "I wrote this essay in the winter, 1964. It was printed in the invitation of a show at New School for Social Reseach in New York, January 1965." Cover, left; circuit diagram, overleaf.
b. CYBERNATED ART(1966)
Cybernated art is very important, but art for cybernated life is more important, and the latter need not be cybernated. (Maybe George Brecht`s simplissimo is the most adequate.)
But if Pasteur and Robespierre are right that we can resist poison only through certain built-in poison then some specific frustrations, caused by cybernated life, require accordingly cybernated shock and catharsis. My everyday work with videotape and the cathode-ray tube convinces me of this.
Cybernetic, the science of pure relations, or relationship itself, has its origin in karma. Marshall McLuhan's famous phrase "Media is message" was formulated by Nobert Wiener in 1948 as "The signal, where the message is sent, plays equally important role as the signal, where message is not sent."
As the Happening is the fusion of various arts, so cybernetics is the exploitation of boundary regions between and across various existing sciences.
Newton's physics is the mechanics of power and the unconciliatory two-party system, in which the strong win over weak. But in the 1920s a German genius put a tiny third -party (grid) between these two mighty poles (cathode and anode) in a vacuum tube, thus enabling the weak to win over the strong for the first time in human history. It might be a Buddhistic "third way," but anyway this German invention led to cybernetics, which came to the world in the last war to shoot down German planes from the English sky.
The Buddhists also say Karma is samsara Relationship is metempsychosis
We are in open circuits
c. ART AND SATELLITE(1984)
At the turn of our century, the French mathmatician Henri Poincare said the following thing...(Yes, it was in the midst of so-called material progress and the discovery of new Things..) Ponicare pointed out that what was being discovered was not new THINGS but merely the new RELATIONSHIPS between things already existing.
We are again in the fin de siecle...this time we are discovering much new software... which are not new things but new thinks...and again we are discovering and even weaving new relationships between many thinks and minds...we are already knee-deep in the post industrial age. The satellite, especially the live two-way satellite, is a very powerful tool for this human Videosphere...
It is said that all the sciences can trace their roots to Aristotle: but the science of cosmic aesthetics started with Sarutobi Sasuke, a famous ninja (a samurai who mastered many fantastic arts, including that of making himself invisible, chiefly to spy upon and enemy). The first step for a ninja is learning how to shorten distances by shrinking the earth, that is, how to transcend the law of gravity. For the satellite, this is a piece of cake. So, just as Mozart mastered the newly invented clarinet, the satellite artist must compose his art from the beginning suitable to physical conditions and grammar. Satellite art in the superior sense does not merely transmit existing symphonies and poeras to other lands. It must consider how to achieve a two-way connection between opposite sides of the earth; how to give a conversational structure to the art; how to master differences in time; how to play with improvisation, in- determinism, echos, feedbacks, and empty spaces in the Cagean sense; and how to instantaneously manage various nations. Satellite art must make the most of these elements (for they can become strengths or weaknesses), creating a multitemporal, multispatial symphony...
There is no rewind button on the BETAMAX of life. An impotant event takes place only once. The free deaths (of Socrates, Christ, Bo Yi and Shu Qi) that became the foundations for the morality of three civilzations occurred only once. The Meetings of person and person, of person and specific era are often said to take place "one meeting- one life," but the bundle of segments of this existence (if segments can come in bundles) has grown much thicker because of the satellite.
The thinking process is the jumping of electrical sparks across the synapses between brain cells arranged in multilayered matrices. Inspiration is a spark shooting off in an unexpected direction and landing on a point in some corner of the matrix. The satellite will accidentally and inevitably produce unexpected meetings of person and person and will enrich the synapses between the brain cells of mankind. Thoreau, the author of Walden, Life in the Woods, and a nineteenth-century forerunner of the hippies, wrote, "The telephone company is trying to connect Maine and Tennessee by telephone. Even if it were to succeed, though, what would the people say to each other? What could they possibly find to talk about?" Of course, history eventually answered Thoreau's questions (silly ones, at that). There developed a feedback (of, to use and older term, dialectic) of new contacts breeding new contents and new contents breeding new contacts...
Thanks to the satellite, the mysteries of encounters with others (chance meetings) will accumulate in geometric progression and should become the main nonmaterial product of post-industrial society. God created love to propagate the human race, but, unawares, man began to love simply to love. By the same logic, although man talks to accomplish something, unawares, he soon begins to talk simply to talk...
d. PARTICIPATION TV
Which comprises 3 or 4 color TV sets which show multi-color echoes, or fog, of clouds which are electronically produced. Sometimes you can see yourself floating in air, dissolving in deep water.
e. TV BRA FOR LIVING SCULPTURE (Paik Nam June-Charlotte Moorman)
( NAM JUNE PAIK-CHARLOTTE MOORMAN )
In this case, the sound of the cello she plays will change, modulate, regenerate the picture on her TV-BRA
"The real issue implied in 'Art and Technology' is not to make another scientific toy, but how to humanize the technology and the electronic medium, which is progressing rapidly-too rapidly. Progress has already outstripped ability to program. I would suggest 'silent TV station.' This is TV station for highbrows, which transmits most of time only beautiful 'mood art' in the sense of 'mood music.' What I am aiming at is TV version of Vivaldi...of electronic 'Compoz.' o soothe every hysteric woman through air, and to calm down the nervous tension of every businessman through air. In that way 'Light Art.' will become a permanent asset of even collection of Million people. SILENT TV Station will simply be 'there', not intruding on other activites...and being looked at exactly like a landscape...or beautiful bathing nude of Renoir, and in that case, everybody enjoys the 'original'....and not a reproduction...
"TV Brassiere for Living Sculpture (Charlotte Moorman) is also one sharp example to humanize electronics...and technology. By using TV as bra...the most intimate belonging of human being, we will demonstrate the human use of technology, and also simulate viewers NOT for someting mean but stimulate their phantasy to look for the new, imaginative and humanistic ways of using our technology."
f. VERSATILE COLOR TV SYNTHESIZER
This will enable us to shape the TV screen canvas
as precisely as Leonardo
as freely as Picasso
as colorfully as Renoire
as profoundly as Mondrian
as violently as Pollock
as lyrically as Jasper Johns.
In the long-ranged future, such a versatile color
synthesizer will become a standard equiptment like today's Hammond organ, or Moog synthesizer in the musical field, but even in the immediate future it will find wide applification.
1) TV-tranquilizer, which is at the same time an avant garde artwork in its own right. As time magazine "groovy" TV will be an important function of future TV, like today's mood music at WPAT of WOR-FM
2) Enormous enrichment of background scenery of music programs or talkshows, combined with sharp reduction in the production cost is especially effective for young generation's rock programs. Traditional psychadelic light show cannot compete with electronic color synthesizer as much as Ferrari racing car cannot catch even a good old DC-4.
3) This will provide valuable experiments for EVR, which would be aimed for more sophisticated or educational layer of consumer. Eg., what kind of visual material will accompany the vast repertoire of classical and pop music? People will be quickly tired of von Karajan`s turtle neck or Beatles' long hair. The study of this problem cannot be started too soon, an it might end up by producing a new furtile genre, called "electronic opera."
g. Nam June Paik VEDEO SYNTHESIZER PLUS
Shuya Abe and I am stranded in Los Angeles without car...We miss New York's dirty subway...John Lindsay is a great man, who charges on 30c for a refrigerated ride...Abe san said "We are Darma-monk"...Darma was so diligent for 9 years in sitting and meditating that he did not even go to men`s room....The accumulated shit eventually melted away his limbs and Darma became to be loved as a Buddha without legs...this leg-less man`s wireless tranmission is all what TV is about today...and in coming carless society.
Video synthesizer is the accumulation of my nine year's TV-shit (if this holy allusion is allowed), turned into a real-time video piano by the Golden Finger of Shuya Abe, my great mentor. Big TV studio always scares me. Many layers of "Machine Time" parallely running, engulfs my identity. It always brings me the anxiety of Norbert Wiener, seeing the delicate yet formidable Dichotomy of Human Time and Machine Time, a particular contingency of so-called Cybernated Age. (I use technology in order to hate it more properly.)...In the heated atmosphere of TV-contral room, I yearn for the solitude of a Franz Schubert, humming a new song in the unheated attics in Vienna... Ironically a huge Machine (WGBH, Boston) helped me to create my anti-machine machine....this is a place to thank beautiful people there...Michael Rice, Fred Barzyk, John Folsom, David Atwood, Olivia Tappan, etc..you just never know.
Let us look back to the mid 19th century..most people were deprived of the way for self expression in the visual art. Only the selected few had the access to tolls, such as oil paints or canvas and know-how. But the invention of camera changed the scene and made everybody into an active visual artist. The size of camera industry and art business illustrated the massive desire to create and artwork, instead of watching a masterpiece on the wall. Will this process repeat itself in the TV world? Will the network program become a wall painting in the museum and we active video creators and creating machine, such as video-synthesizer etc., become as ig as Kodak, Nikon, Zeiss Ikon combined? If yet, will we be able to subsidize the ailing NBC or CBS from our tax-deductable portion of income...Dear Phyllis: don`t smoke cigarette, and live longer to see our D-Day.
Paik-Abe video-synthesizer is a humble effort for this day, putting 1001 ways of instant TV making. We gave up High Fidelity but we won the Super Infidelity...adultery is always more interesting than marriage.
The "attraction" of drug experience to young people lies in the peculiar "ontology" of this unfortunate medium.
Generally speaking art consists of three different parties. (1) Creator (active transmitter); (2) Audience (passive receiver); (3) Critics (judge or carrier-band)
Through this discrepancy, all the complicated contingencies in the art world, or art-pollution, such as vanity, school, style, intrigue, manipulation etc. come up to tue scene. The dubious distinction of so-said First Class artist or second rate musician or minor poet etc., is also a result of this diescrepancy.
But in the drug experience, all three parties are united into one. A kid who smokes a joint or so is at the same time creator, audience and critic. There is no room for comparison and grading, such as "first class drug taker" or "second rated pot smoker" etc...This ontological analysis demonstrated to us once again that drug is a short cut effort to recover the sense of participation...and basic cause lies in our passive state of mind, such as TV watching, etc...
Can we transplant this strange "ontology" of drug experience to "safer" and more "authentic" art medium, without transplanting the inherent danger of drug overdose???
Participation TV(the one-ness of creator, audience, and critic) is surely one probable way for this goal...and it is not a small virtue...not at all.....
h. SIMULATION OF HUMAN EYES (By 4-Channel)
Stereo Video Taping
Dedicated to Shuya Abe, my great mentor
The reason why the so-said "documentary" movie is often a tendentious interpretation of reality is partially due to its techno-existential form. Its output is confined to one stripe of film or video tape, one-way time, one-vector direction-therefore no space for space that is randomness and freedom(which is one spectrum of randomness).
I always admired Emmett Williams, especially his stereo eyes (commonly called "cross eyes") because cross gives us more freedom. I suggest the construction of a four -channel stereo camera-VTR (video tape reording) which would more objectively simulate our eyes.
Our eyes are a very efficient combination of two different functions: (1) Freedom, wide view, and (2) focussing, concentration.
In usual film-making process, the former case is the long shot; the latter case is the closeup or zoom-up. But, alas, in most documentary film, the relationship of these two atiitydes is far from being ideal. Often the director of documentary film is so persuasive that, in fact, he is imposing his view with skillful editing and powerful zoom-up.
If film or video tape is really becoming on extension of eyes, it should cease to be so imposing but should imitate as much as possible the function of eyes-that is, a very versatile combination of freedom and focussing, of closeup or long shot. I think the four-channel camera-tape complex will overcome the shortcoming of traditional camera or film-making style. One camera is confined to the front shot. The second camera scans the left side-the third camera scans the right side. The fourth camera scans the rear view and is occasionally used for focussing on one point. This camera group's angles have to kept intact also in playback.
In talking with Steve Gillmore this afternoon, it came to our attention that the multi -channel video taping might solve or shelve the difficulty in editing, which is a severe structural defect of video tape in comparison to film.
California Institute of the Arts
September 21, 1970
Norman Bauman, my longtime Lin-Piao, said to me flatly, "Doug Davis' segment in Boston Symphony Video Variation is BETTER than yours." I was as furious as MAO, but Norman`s plane did not crash at Mongolian desert.
Doug based the aesthetics of his
"better-than-mine-variation" on a complicated German Formula, which reads:
But seemingly uncomplicated equation of Mr. Davis (published in Arts Magazine) impressed me as much as Schroedinger's. It reads:
This equation symbolizes our input-overload-situation and a guy with Madison Avenue office with 50 incoming telephones a day would have found this equation, and not me, a Canal Street hermit with two incoming telephone signals a day, of which one is from N.Y. Telephone company, which scares me of an impending suspension of telephone service due to backlog of unpaid bills.
We have the negative Logarithm of Malthusian Law in the ratio of Input signals and human perception or in the ratio of machine time and human time. In Malthusian England food supply did not increase as fast as the population growth. of wake-up-time does not grow as fast as our exponential leap in the input signals to digest or process. A few adventurers in TIME, like Columbus was an adventurer in SPACE, tried to cope with it by simply taking UP-pills for having fun and not going to sleep for many years. A well-known fasion designer hardly slept for the whole decade of the sixties. Finally she took her life on her 40th birthday.
Ultimate and bloody irony of media is that the N.Y. Times, which hardly mentioned her in her life time, suddenly came up with many thousand words orbituary complete with prettiest picture instantaneously after her death. Where were all these ignored information sleeping? Electronic truth is that if you amplify certain signals, you ended up amplifying the noise component of the target-signal more than the useful information. Therefore the bigger the circulation (of a magazine), the worse is the quality.
Our chic sister in North Hampton would say, "Why artist bothers with communication, information, and media?"
Discovery of art-forgery is 100 times bigger news than the discovery of new art...well, listen to the hidden voice of our good old Baudelaire. The KEY poem in the Flower of Evil is nothing but a research on art and communication.
All nature is a temple whose living pillars seem
At times to babble confused words, half understood;
Man journeys there through an obscure symbolic wood,
Aware of eyes that peep with a familiar gleam.
If you replace Baudelaire's pre-Marconian "nature" to our pan-cyber-nated "video- sphere," all words and insinuation of the symbolistic poem becomes a "clear-cut definition" of what artist should be doing today as the aerial antena of this society. We have million bits of UFO daily and Radar is nothing but a two-way Television.
The second stanza of the "Correspondence" is even more profoundly 70-ish. and it almost predicted what Doug Davis would do in that unforgettable evening at the Corcoran Gallery and Channel 9 TV in Washington D.C. on the wedding night of Trish Nixon. Hundreds of Cadillac assembled and black-tie-chic went into wedding. Hundreds of hippies came on foot, bicycle, and on battered school bus to Corcoran, which is annexed to the wedding hall. For next 30 minutes the whole Washington youth community were magnetized with plane to plane information flows....Baudelaire wrote the review in advance as follows:
Like endless echoes that from somewhere far beyond,
Mingling, in one profound and criptic whole unite,
Vast as the twin immensities of night and light,
So do all colours, sounds, and perfumes correspond.
As stated before, the malaise of our time is the balance between input and output ratio. 40,000 commercials are hitting us yearly, according to the statistics, but we can afford to buy only 40 of them. Consequently we create an artificial output unit, e. g. lying on the bench of Psychiatrist and TALK...like a goldfish. Since I cannot afford that hobby either, I spend two hours daily, in toilet,....pants down...and read 8 weekly magazines, 4 monthly magazines and 3 daily papers. I enlarge my output unit, or electronically speaking, I lowered the impedance of output. In a recent FLUXUS event, organized by Maciunas for Ben Vautier, he handed out Ex-Lax chocolate (plain-wrapped) without warning to participants. Ben spent his last 24 hours of U.S. stay in toilet. It is my interpretation of Doug Davis' another brilliant piece, in which viewers are urged to look at only the backside of TV set.
Voila look at the beautiful asses of French Can-Can dance at Moulin Rouge...But here a super-natural transfiguration has happened.
What you see, is the mystical glow of 60-cycle pulsation only...Norbert Wiener's enigmatic aphorism, "Information with content is as important as the information without content." is finally artistically proven. It is a mystique of communication-art on the level of Charles Baudelaire and Ray Johnson. Sigmund Freud, who started also with anus- psychology, reached to the "sublimisation of impetus" in his later years, a problem unsolved by his death
Perfumes there are as fresh as children's bodies, springs
Of fragrance sweet as oboes, green and full of peace
As prairies. And there are others, proud, corrupt, intense
Having the all-pervasiveness of infinite things,
Like burning spice or resin, musk or ambergris,
That sing the raptures of the spirit and the sense.